we have seen that in multirange ammeter, a make before break switch is must. The
Ayrton shunt or universal shunt eliminates the possibility of having a
meter without a shunt. The meter with Ayrton shunt is shown in the Fig.
1.

The selector switch S, selects the appropriate shunt required to
change the range of the meter. When the position of the switch is '1'
then the resistance R

_{1}_{ }is in parallel with the series combination of R_{2}_{ }, R_{3}_{ }and Rm. Hence current through the shunt is more than the current through the meter, thus protecting the basic meter. When the switch is in the position '2', then the series resistance of R1 and R2 is in parallel with the series combination of R_{3}_{ }and Rm. The current through the meter is more than through the shunt in this position. In the position '3', the resistances R_{1}_{ }, R_{2}_{ }and R_{3 }_{ }are in series and acts as the shunt. In this position, the maximum current flows through the meter. This increases the sensitivity of the meter.
The voltage drop across the two parallel branches is always equal.

Thus, I

_{sh}_{ }R_{sh}_{ }= I_{m}_{ }R_{m}_{ }
But in position 1, R

_{1}_{ }is in parallel with R_{2}_{ }+ R_{3}_{ }+ R_{m}
where I

_{1}_{ }is the first range required.
In position 2, R

_{1}_{ }+ R_{2}_{ }is in parallel with R_{3}_{ }+ R_{m}_{ }.
where I

_{2}_{ }is the second range required.
where I

_{3}_{ }is the third range required.
The current range I

_{3}_{ }is the minimum while I_{1}_{ }is maximum range possible. Solving the equations (1), (2) and (3) the required Ayrton shunt can be designed.__1.1 Precautions to be Taken While Using an Ammeter__

The following precautions must be taken while using an ammeter.

1)
As the ammeter resistance is very low, it should never be connected
across any source of e.m.f. Always connect an ammeter in series with the
load.

2)
The polarities must be observed correctly. The opposite polarities
deflect the pointer in opposite direction against the mechanical stop
ans this may damage the pointer.

3)
While using multirange ammeter, first us e the highest current range
and then decrease the current range until sufficient deflection is
obtained. So to increase the accuracy, finally select the range which
will give the reading near full scale deflection.

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