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Tuesday, 20 September 2016

SCADA Protocols

4.0   SCADA Protocols
In a SCADA system, the RTU accepts commands to operate control points, sets analog output levels, and responds to requests.  It provides status, analog and accumulated data to the SCADA master station. The data representations sent are not identified in any fashion other than by unique addressing. The addressing is designed to correlate with the SCADA master station database. The RTU has no knowledge of which unique parameters it is monitoring in the real world. It simply monitors certain points and stores the information in a local addressing scheme. The SCADA master station is the part of the system that should “know” that the first status point of RTU number 27 is the status of a certain circuit breaker of a given substation. This represents the predominant SCADA systems and protocols in use in the utility industry today. 

Each protocol consists of two message sets or pairs. One set forms the master protocol, containing the valid statements for master station initiation or response, and the other set is the RTU protocol, containing the valid statements an RTU can initiate and respond to. In most but not all cases, these pairs can be considered a poll or request for information or action and a confirming response. 
The SCADA protocol between master and RTU forms a viable model for RTU-to- Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) communications. Currently, in industry, there are several different protocols in use.  The most popular are International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 60870-5 series, specifically IEC 60870-5-101 (commonly referred to as 101) and Distributed Network Protocol version 3 (DNP3).  

4.1 IEC 60870-5-101 
IEC 60870-5 specifies a number of frame formats and services that may be provided at different layers. IEC 60870-5 is based on a three-layer Enhanced Performance Architecture (EPA) reference model (see Figure 4.1) for efficient implementation within RTUs, meters, relays, and other Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs). Additionally, IEC 60870-5 defines basic application functionality for a user layer, which is situated between the Open System Interconnection (OSI) application layer and the application program. This user layer adds interoperability for such functions as clock synchronization and file transfers. The following descriptions provide the basic scope of each of the five documents in the base IEC 60870-5 telecontrol transmission protocol specification set.  

Standard profiles are necessary for uniform application of the IEC 60870-5 standards. A profile is a set of parameters defining the way a device acts. Such profiles have been and are being created. The 101 profile is described in detail following the description of the applicable standards.

Figure 4.1:  Enhanced Performance Architecture

        IEC 60870-5-1 (1990-02) specifies the basic requirements for services to be provided by the data link and physical layers for telecontrol applications. In particular, it specifies standards on coding, formatting, and synchronizing data frames of variable and fixed lengths that meet specified data integrity requirements.

        IEC-60870-5-2 (1992-04) offers a selection of link transmission procedures using a control field and optional address field; the address field is optional because some point-to-point topologies do not require either source or destination addressing.

        IEC 60870-5-3 (1992-09) specifies rules for structuring application data units in transmission frames of telecontrol systems. These rules are presented as generic standards that may be used to support a great variety of present and future telecontrol applications. This section of IEC 60870-5 describes the general structure of application data and basic rules to specify application data units without specifying details about information fields and their contents.

        IEC 60870-5-4 (1993-08) provides rules for defining information data elements and a common set of information elements, particularly digital and analog process variables that are frequently used in telecontrol applications.

        IEC 60870-5-5 (1995-06) defines basic application functions that perform standard procedures for telecontrol systems, which are procedures that reside beyond layer 7 (application layer) of the ISO reference model. These utilize standard services of the application layer. The specifications in IEC 60870-5-5 (1995-06) serve as basic standards for application profiles that are then created in detail for specific telecontrol tasks. 

Each application profile will use a specific selection of the defined functions. Any basic application functions not found in a standards document but necessary for defining certain telecontrol applications should be specified within the profile. Examples of such telecontrol functions include station initialization, cyclic data transmission, data acquisition by polling, clock synchronization, and station configuration. 

The Standard 101 Profile provides structures that are also directly applicable to the interface between RTUs and IEDs. It contains all the elements of a protocol necessary to provide an unambiguous profile definition so vendors may create products that interoperate fully. 
At the physical layer, the Standard 101 Profile additionally allows the selection of International Telecommunication Union–Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) standards that are compatible with Electronic Industries Association (EIA) standards RS-2321 and RS-4852, and also support fiber optics interfaces. 

The Standard 101 Profile specifies frame format FT 1.2, chosen from those offered in IEC 60870-5-1 (1990-02) to provide the required data integrity together with the maximum efficiency available for acceptable convenience of implementation. FT 1.2 is basically asynchronous and can be implemented using standard Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitters (UARTs). Formats with both fixed and variable block length are permitted. 

The Standard 101 Profile defines the necessary rules for devices that will operate in the unbalanced (multi-drop) and balanced (point-to-point) transmission modes. 
The Standard 101 Profile defines appropriate Application Service Data Units (ASDUs) from a given general structure in IEC 60870-5-3 (1992-09). The sizes and the contents of individual information fields of ASDUs are specified according to the declaration rules for information elements defined in the document IEC 60870-5-4 (1993-08). 

Type information defines structure, type, and format for information object(s), and a set has been predefined for a number of information objects. The predefined information elements and type information do not preclude the addition by vendors of new information elements and types that follow the rules defined by IEC 60870-5-4 (1993-08) and the Standard 101 Profile. Information elements in the Standard 101 Profile have been defined for protection equipment, voltage regulators, and metered values to interface these devices as IEDs to the RTU. 

The Standard 101 Profile utilizes the following basic application functions, defined in IEC 60870-5-5 (1995-06), within the user layer:
a)      Station initialization
b)      Cyclic data transmission
c)       General interrogation
d)      Command transmission
e)      Data acquisition by polling
f)       Acquisition of events
g)      Parameter loading h) File transfer
h)      Clock synchronization
i)        Transmission of integrated totals
j)        Test procedure 

Finally, the Standard 101 Profile defines parameters that support interoperability among multi-vendor devises within a system.  These parameters are defined in 60870-5-102 and 60870-5-105. [6]  The Standard 101 Profile provides a checklist that vendors can use to describe their devices from a protocol perspective. These parameters include baud rate, common address of ASDU field length, link transmission procedure, basic application functions, etc., Also contained in the check list is the information that should be contained in the ASDU in both the control and monitor directions.  This will assist the SCADA engineers to configure their particular system. 

The Standard 101 Profile application layer specifies the structure of the ASDU, as shown in Figure 4.1. The fields indicated as being optional per system will be determined by a system level parameter shared by all devices in the system. For instance, the size of the common address of ASDU is determined by a fixed system parameter, in this case one or two octets (bytes). 

The Standard 101 Profile also defines two new terms not found in the IEC 60870-5-1 through 60870-5 base documents. The control direction refers to transmission from the controlling station to a controlled station. The monitor direction is the direction of transmission from a controlled station to the controlling station. Figure 4.2 shows the structure of ASDUs as defined in the IEC 60870-5-101 specification.

Figure 4.2: Structure of ADSUs in IEC 60870-5-101 (1995-11) [6]

4.2 DNP3 

Protocols define the rules by which devices talk with each other, and DNP3 is a protocol for transmission of data from point A to point B using serial communications. It has been used primarily by utilities like the electric companies, but it operates suitably in other areas. 

The DNP3 is specifically developed for inter-device communication involving SCADA RTUs, and provides for both RTU-to-IED and master-to-RTU/IED. It is based on the three-layer enhanced performance architecture (EPA) model contained in the IEC 60870- 5 standards, with some alterations to meet additional requirements of a variety of users in the electric utility industry.
DNP3 was developed with the following goals:

• High data integrity. The DNP3 data link layer uses a variation of the IEC 60870-5-1 (1990-02) frame format FT3. Both data link layer frames and application layer messages may be transmitted using confirmed service.
• Flexible structure. The DNP3 application layer is object-based, with a structure that allows a range of implementations while retaining interoperability.

• Multiple applications. DNP3 can be used in several modes, including:
1.       Polled only 2. Polled report-by-exception
2.       Unsolicited report-by-exception (quiescent mode)
3.       Mixture of modes 1. Through 3.
 It can also be used with several physical layers, and as a layered protocol is suitable for operation over local and some wide area networks.

• Minimized overhead. DNP3 was designed for existing wire-pair data links with operating bit rates as low as 1200 bit/s and attempts to use a minimum of overhead while retaining flexibility. Selection of a data reporting method, such as report-by- exception, further reduces overhead.
• Open standard. DNP3 is a non-proprietary, evolving standard controlled by a users group whose members include RTU, IED, and master station vendors, and representatives of the electric utility and system consulting community. 

A typical organization may have a centralized operations center that monitors the state of all the equipment in each of its substations. In the operations center, a computer stores all of the incoming data and displays the system for the human operators. Substations have many devices that need monitoring (are circuit breakers opened or closed?), current sensors (how much current is flowing?) and voltage transducers (what is the line potential?). That only scratches the surface; a utility is interested in monitoring many parameters, too numerous to discuss here. The operations personnel often need to switch sections of the power grid into or out of service. One or more computers are situated in the substation to collect the data for transmission to the master station in the operations center. The substation computers are also called upon to energize or de-energize the breakers and voltage regulators.

DNP3 provides the rules for substation computers and master station computers to communicate data and control commands. DNP3 is a non-proprietary protocol that is available to anyone. Only a nominal fee is charged for documentation, but otherwise it is available worldwide with no restrictions. This means a utility can purchase master station and substation computing equipment from any manufacturer and be assured that they will reliably talk to each other. Vendors compete based upon their computer equipment’s features, costs and quality factors instead of who has the best protocol. Utilities are not stuck with one manufacturer after the initial sale.

The substation computer gathers data for transmission to the master such as:
        Binary input data that is useful to monitor two-state devices. For example, a circuit breaker is closed or tripped, or a pipeline pressure alarm shows normal or excessive.

        Analog input data that conveys voltages, currents, power, reservoir water levels and temperatures
        Count input data that reports kilowatt hours of energy
        Files that contain configuration data

The master station issues control commands that take the form of:
        Close or trip a circuit breaker, raise or lower a gate, and open or close a valve
        Analog output values to set a regulated pressure or set a desired voltage level 
Other things the computers talk to each other about are synchronizing the time and date, sending historical or logged data, waveform data, etc. 

DNP3 was designed to optimize the transmission of data acquisition information and control commands from one computer to another. It is not a general purpose protocol for transmitting hypertext, multimedia or huge files. 
Figure 4.3 shows the client-server relationship and gives a simplistic view of the databases and software processes involved. The master or client is on the left side of Figure 4.3, and the slave or server is on the right side. 

A series of square blocks at the top of the server depicts its databases and output devices. The various data types are conceptually organized as arrays. An array of binary input values represents states of physical or logical Boolean devices. Values in the analog input array represent input quantities that the server measured or computed. An array of counters represents count values, such as kilowatt hours, that are ever increasing (until they reach a maximum and then roll over to zero and start counting again). Control outputs are organized into an array representing physical or logical on-off, raise-lower and trip-close points. Lastly, the array of analog outputs represents physical or logical analog quantities such as those used for setpoints.

Figure 4.3: DNP3 Client Server Relationship [7]

The elements of the arrays are labeled 0 through N - 1 where N is the number of blocks shown for the respective data type. In DNP3 terminology, the element numbers are called the point indexes. Indexes are zero-based in DNP3, that is, the lowest element is always identified as zero (some protocols use 1-based indexing). 

Notice that the DNP3 client, or master, also has a similar database for the input data types (binary, analog and counter). The master, or client, uses values in its database for the specific purposes of displaying system states, closed-loop control, alarm notification,

billing, etc.  An objective of the client is to keep its database updated. It accomplishes this by sending requests to the server (slave) asking it to return the values in the server’s database. This is termed polling. The server responds to the client’s request by transmitting the contents of its database. Arrows are drawn at the bottom of Figure 4.1 showing the direction of the requests (toward the server) and the direction of the responses (toward the client). Later we will discuss systems whereby the slaves transmit responses without being asked. 

The client and the server shown in Figure 4.3 each have two software layers. The top layer is the DNP3 user layer. In the client, it is the software that interacts between the database and initiates the requests for the server’s data. In the server, it is the software that fetches the requested data from the server’s database for responding to client requests. It is interesting to note that if no physical separation of the client and server existed, eliminating the DNP3 might be possible by connecting these two upper layers together. However, since physical or possibly logical separation of the client and server exists, DNP3 software is placed at a lower level. The DNP3 user’s code uses the DNP3 software for transmission of requests or responses to the matching DNP3 user’s code at the other end. 

Data types and software layers will be discussed later in the report. However, it is important to first examine a few typical system architectures where DNP3 is used.  Figure 4.4 shows common system architectures in use today. At the top is a simple one- on-one system having one master station and one slave. The physical connection between the two is typically a dedicated or dial-up telephone line.

Figure 4.4: Common DNP3 Architectures in Use Today [7]

The second type of system is known as a multidrop design. One master station communicates with multiple slave devices. Conversations are typically between the client and one server at a time. The master requests data from the first slave, then moves onto the next slave for its data, and continually interrogates each slave in a round robin order. The communication media is a multi-dropped telephone line, fiber optic cable, or radio. Each slave can hear messages from the master and is only permitted to respond to messages addressed to itself. Slaves may or may not be able to hear each other. 

In some multidrop forms, communications are peer-to-peer. A station may operate as a client for gathering information or sending commands to the server in another station. Then, it may change roles to become a server to another station.

The middle row in Figure 4.4 shows a hierarchical type system where the device in the middle is a server to the client at the left and is a client with respect to the server on the right. The middle device is often termed a sub-master. 

Both lines at the bottom of Figure 4.4 show data concentrator applications and protocol converters. A device may gather data from multiple servers on the right side of the figure and store this data in its database where it is retrievable by a master station client on the left side of the figure. This design is often seen in substations where the data concentrator collects information from local intelligent devices for transmission to the master station. 

In recent years, several vendors have used Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) to transport DNP3 messages in lieu of the media discussed above. Link layer frames, which have not been discussed yet, are embedded into TCP/IP packets. This approach has enabled DNP3 to take advantage of Internet technology and permitted economical data collection and control between widely separated devices. 

Many communication circuits between the devices are susceptible to noise and signal distortion. The DNP3 software is layered to provide reliable data transmission and to affect an organized approach to the transmission of data and commands. Figure 4.5 shows the DNP3 architecture layers. 

The link layer has the responsibility of making the physical link reliable. It does this by providing error detection and duplicate frame detection. The link layer sends and receives packets, which in DNP3 terminology are called frames. Sometimes transmission of more than one frame is necessary to transport all of the information from one device to another. A DNP3 frame consists of a header and data section. The header specifies the frame size, which DNP3 station should receive the frame, which DNP3 device sent the frame, and data link control information. The data section is commonly called the payload and contains the data passed down from the layers above. 

Every frame begins with two sync bytes that help the receivers determine where the frame begins. The length specifies the number of octets in the remainder of the frame, not including Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC) octets. The link control octet is used between sending and receiving link layers to coordinate their activities. 

A destination address specifies which DNP3 device should process the data, and the source address identifies which DNP3 device sent the message. Having both destination and source addresses satisfies at least one requirement for peer-to-peer communications because the receiver knows where to direct its responses. Every DNP3 device must have a unique address within the collection of devices sending and receiving messages to and from each other. Three destination addresses are reserved by DNP3 to denote an all-call message; that is, all DNP3 devices should process the frame. Thirteen addresses are reserved for special needs in the future.  

Figure 4.5: DNP3 Layers [8]
The data payload in the link frame contains a pair of CRC octets for every 16 data octets. This provides a high degree of assurance that communication errors can be detected. The maximum number of octets in the data payload is 250, not including CRC octets. (The longest link layer frame is 292 octets if all the CRC and header octets are counted). 

One often hears the term “link layer confirmation” when DNP3 is discussed. A feature of DNP3's link layer is the ability of the transmitter of the frame to request the receiver to confirm that the frame arrived. Using this feature is optional, and it is often not employed. It provides an extra degree of assurance of reliable communications. If a confirmation is not received, the link layer may retry the transmission. Some disadvantages are the extra time required for confirmation messages and waiting for multiple timeouts when retries are configured. 

It is the responsibility of the transport layer to break long messages into smaller frames sized for the link layer to transmit, or when receiving, to reassemble frames into the longer messages. In DNP3 the transport layer is incorporated into the application layer. The transport layer requires only a single octet within the message to do its work. Therefore, since the link layer can handle only 250 data octets, and one of those is used for the transport function, then each link layer frame can hold as many as 249 application layer octets. 

Application layer messages are broken into fragments. Fragment size is determined by the size of the receiving device’s buffer. It normally falls between 2048 and 4096 bytes. A message that is larger than one fragment requires multiple fragments. Fragmenting messages is the responsibility of the application layer. 

Note that an application layer fragment of size 2048 must be broken into 9 frames by the transport layer, and a fragment size of 4096 needs 17 frames. Interestingly, it has been learned by experience that communications are sometimes more successful for systems operating in high noise environments if the fragment size is significantly reduced. 
The application layer works together with the transport and link layers to enable reliable communications. It provides standardized functions and data formatting with which the user layer above can interact. Before functions, data objects and variations can be discussed, the terms static, events and classes need to be covered. 

In DNP3, the term static is used with data and refers to the current value. Thus static binary input data refers to the present on or off state of a bi-state device. Static analog input data contains the value of an analog value at the instant it is transmitted. DNP3 allows a request for some or all of the static data stored in a slave device. 

DNP3 events are associated with something significant happening. Examples are state changes, values exceeding some threshold, snapshots of varying data, transient data and newly available information. An event occurs when a binary input changes from an “on” to an “off” state or when an analog value changes by more than its configured deadband limit. DNP3 provides the ability to report events with and without time stamps so that the client can generate a time sequence report. 

The user layer can direct DNP3 to request events. Usually, a client is updated more rapidly if it mostly polls for events from the server and only occasionally asks for static data as an integrity measure. The reason updates are faster is because the number of events generated between server interrogations is small and, therefore, less data must be returned to the client.

DNP3 goes a step further by classifying events into three classes. When DNP3 was conceived, class 1 events were considered as having higher priority than class 2 events, and class 2 were higher than class 3 events. While that scheme can be still be configured, some DNP3 users have developed other strategies more favorable to their operation for assigning events into the classes. The user layer can request the application layer to poll for class 1, 2 or 3 events or any combination of them. 

DNP3 has provisions for representing data in different formats. Examination of analog data formats is helpful to understand the flexibility of DNP3. Static, current value, analog data can be represented by variation numbers as follows:
        A 32-bit integer value with flag
        A 16-bit integer value with flag
        A 32-bit integer value
        A 16-bit integer value
        A 32-bit floating point value with flag
        A 64-bit floating point value with flag
The flag referred to is a single octet with bit fields indicating whether the source is on- line, value contains are start value, communications are lost with the source, the data is forced and the value is over range. 

Not all DNP3 devices can transmit or interpret all six variations.  DNP3 devices must be able to transmit the simplest variations so that any receiver can interpret the contents. 
Event analog data can be represented by these variations:
        A 32-bit integer value with flag
        A 16-bit integer value with flag
        A 32-bit integer value with flag and event time
        A 16-bit integer value with flag and event time
        A 32-bit floating point value with flag
        A 64-bit floating point value with flag
        A 32-bit floating point value with flag and event time
        A 32-bit floating point value with flag and event time 
The flag has the same bit fields as the static variations. 

It looks like a variation one or two analog events cannot be differentiated from a variation one or two static analog value. DNP3 solves this predicament by assigning object
numbers. Static analog values are assigned as object 30, and event analog values are assigned as object 32. Static analog values, object 30, can be formatted in one of 6 variations, and event analog values, object 32, can be formatted in one of 8 variations. 

When a DNP3 server transmits a message containing response data, the message identifies the object number and variation of every value within the message. Object and variation numbers are also assigned for counters, binary inputs, controls and analog outputs. In fact, all valid data types and formats in DNP3 are identified by object and variation numbers. Defining the allowable objects and variations helps DNP3 assure interoperability between devices. DNP3's basic documentation contains a library of valid objects and their variations. 

The client’s user layer formulates its request for data from the server by telling the application layer what function to perform, like reading, and specifying which objects it wants from the server. The request can specify how many objects it wants or it can specify specific objects or a range of objects from index number X through index number Y. The application layer then passes the request down through the transport layer to the link layer that, in turn, sends the message to the server. The link layer at the server checks the frames for errors and passes them up to the transport layer where the complete message is assembled in the server’s application layer. The application layer then tells the user layer which objects and variations were requested. 

Responses work similarly, in that, the server’s user layer fetches the desired data and presents it to the application layer that formats the data into objects and variations. Data is then passed downward, across the communication channel and upward to the client’s application layer. Here the data objects are presented to the user layer in a form that is native to the client’s database. 

One area that has not been covered yet is transmission of unsolicited messages. This is a mode of operating where the server spontaneously transmits a response, possibly containing data, without having received a specific request for the data. Not all servers have this capability, but those that do must be configured to operate in this mode. This mode is useful when the system has many slaves and the master requires notification as soon as possible after a change occurs. Rather than waiting for a master station polling cycle to get around to it, the slave simply transmits the change. 

To configure a system for unsolicited messages, a few basics need to be considered. First, spontaneous transmissions should generally occur infrequently, otherwise, too much contention can occur, and controlling media access via master station polling would be better. The second basic issue is that the server should have some way of knowing whether it can transmit without stepping on someone else’s message in progress. DNP3 leaves specification of algorithms to the system implementer. 

One last area of discussion involves implementation levels. The DNP3 Users Group recognizes that supporting every feature of DNP3 is not necessary for every device. Some devices are limited in memory and speed and do not need specific features, while other 
devices must have the more advanced features to accomplish their task. DNP3 organizes complexity into three levels. At the lowest level, level 1, only very basic functions must be provided and all others are optional. Level 2 handles more functions, objects and variations, and level 3 is even more sophisticated. As a result only certain combinations of request formats and response formats are required. 

DNP3 is a protocol that fits well into the data acquisition world. It transports data as generic values, has a rich set of functions, and was designed to work in a wide area communications network. The standardized approach and public availability make DNP3 a protocol to be the standard for SCADA applications.

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