### A C Theory

Earlier we discussed that there are various ways to produce electricity. We can produce electricity chemically with a battery. We just learned that electricity can be produced mechanically by a generator. What we did not discuss in detail, though, was the difference between electricity produced by a battery, and electricity produced by a generator.

In the case of a battery, electricity flows in one direction, from positive to negative. Everything is straightforward. In the case of a generator, however, things get a bit more complicated. It is possible to generate electricity by spinning a coil within a magnetic field. The coil is in constant motion within the magnetic field, and thus is transformed into electricity via the magnets. The electricity exits by way of the brushes and slip rings, but it is not exactly like the electricity which is produced by a battery.

If we look at the current leaving the battery, it is constantly moving in the same direction. We call this DIRECT CURRENT . But if we attach a generator instead of a battery in the same circuit, we notice a major change. The meter would swing back and forth from negative to positive. This seems strange until we examine what is going on inside the generator.

As the wire coil rotates, it first passes the north pole of the magnet, producing an electric current flowing in a given direction. As the coil continues in its circular path, it passes the north pole, moving toward the south. As it approaches the south pole, the electric current begins to flow in the OPPOSITE direction from which it was originally moving. It continues to move in this direction until, once again, it approaches the north pole. We say, then that the electrical current is ALTERNATING between positive and negative. We call this type of current ALTERNATING CURRENT .
If we were to plot this swing from positive to negative on a graph, and compare it to the time it takes the motor to turn, we would come up with something like the chart to the left. Notice, that if we begin with the coil positioned directly in the center, between the permanent magnets, the current output is 0.

However as the coil begins to turn, one side of the coil moves toward the north pole. This end of the wire would become positive. At the same time, the other side of the coil moves toward the south pole. This side of the coil becomes negative. At this time, current begins to flow from the positive to the negative. Current continues to flow in this direction and reaches a peak in its cycle. This Maximum amount of current flow is reached when the coil is pointing exactly north and south. We call this the 90 o point, and say that the signal has reached its positive peak. After it passes this point, the voltage begins to drop, but doesn't reach 0 until once again the coil is positioned directly between the permanent magnets. This is the 180 o point.

Now comes the switch up. As the coil continues to turn, the end that was positive now moves toward the south pole of the magnet. Because it is passing by the south pole, this end of the coil swings negative. At the same time, the side of the coil that was negative, is now swinging positive. Thus, the direction of current flow within the wire is switched. The current flow continues in this direction until it again reaches a (this time negative) peak at 270 o . Finally, as the coil approaches its original position, it swings positive until current flow again reaches 0.

By graphing the current vs. time, we end up with a pattern known as a SINUSOIDAL WAVE , or SINE WAVE for short. We say that the sine wave has positive and negative peeks at 90 o and 270 o respectively.
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Hi, I`m Sostenes, Electrical Technician and PLC`S Programmer.
Everyday I`m exploring the world of Electrical to find better solution for Automation. I believe everyday can become a Electrician with the right learning materials.