Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

What is an Artificial Neural Network ?

-It is a computational system inspired by the
Processing Method
Learning Ability
of a biological brain
-Characteristics of Artificial Neural Networks
A large number of very simple processing neuron-like processing elements
A large number of weighted connections between the elements
Distributed representation of knowledge over the connections
Knowledge is acquired by network through a learning process

Why Artificial Neural Networks ?
-Massive Parallelism
-Distributed representation
-Learning ability
-Generalization ablity
-Fault tolerance

• Elements of Artificial Neural Networks
-Processing Units
-Learning Algorithm

• Processing Units

Node input: neti =j ΣwijIi
Node Output: Oi = f (net1)

• Activation Function

-An example


• Learning
-Learn the connection weights from a set of training examples
-Different network architectures required different learning algo rhythms
Supervised Learning
The network is provided with a correct answer (output) for every input pattern
Weights are determined to allow the network to produce answers as close as possible to the known correct answers
The back-propagation algorithm belongs into this category

Unsupervised Learning
Does not require a correct answer associated with each input pat- tern in the training set
Explores the underlying structure in the data, or correlations between patterns in the data, and organizes patterns into cate- gories from these correlations
The Kohonen  algorithm belongs into this category

Hybrid Learning
Comnines supervised and unsupervised learning
Part of the weights are determined through supervised learning and the others are obtained through aunsupervised learning

        Computational Properties
Asingle hidden layer feed-forward network with arbitrary sigmoid hidden layer activation functions can approximate arbitrarily well an arbitrary mapping from one finite dimensional space to another

• Practical Issues
-Generalization vs. Memorization

How to choose the network size (free parameters)
How many training examples
When to stop training

-Pattern Classification
-Function approximation
-Content-addressable Memory

• Two Successful Applications
-Zip code Recognition

-Text to voice translation (NeTtalk)

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