Hello

Welcome lekule blog

Hi, I`m Sostenes, Electrical Technician and PLC`S Programmer.
Everyday I`m exploring the world of Electrical to find better solution for Automation.
together in the world. #lekule86
Join us on

High Pressure Sodium Lamps or HPS Lamps

It is very difficult to get any material which is free from corrosion in presence of sodium vapour in high temperature and pressure. This was the main difficulty of producing high pressure sodium lamp. In 1959, the development of polycrystalline alumina (PCA) opened a new path to introduce the high pressure sodium vapor Lamp. As this material is very rarely affected by high pressure and temperature sodium vapour. The first lamp with 400 W, 42000 initial lumens and 6000 hour life first came in the market in 1965. But afterward some improvements made this lamp with 50000 initial lumens with 24000 hours at 10 hours per start. We can get a lamp that has 2.4 times lumens output of its mercury counterpart with same rated life span.

Diagram of High Pressure Sodium Lamp

diagram high pressure sodium lamps It has an inner PCA arc tube that is filled with xenon gas. This xenon gas is used for starting purpose of the lamp as ionization potential of xenon gas is lowest among all other inert gases used for this purpose. In addition to xenon gas sodium mercury amalgam is present in this arc tube, too.


In each end, back wound and coated tungsten electrodes are mounted. To seal the tube monolithic seal is used instead of niobium end cap. The arc tube is inserted into a heat resistant outer bulb. It is supported by an end clamp that is floating. This end clamp permits the entire structure to expand contract without distorting. The space between the tube and the bulb is a vacuum space. This vacuum space is needed to insulate heat from the arc tube. Because it is necessary to keep the arc tube at required temperature to sustain arc during normal operation.

High pressure sodium lamp has very small diameter (3/8 inch). So there is no enough space to provide any starting electrode in the arc tube. So higher voltage is required to initiate arc. A ballast with ignitor is used for this purpose. High voltage is fed to the lamp from the ballast by using the phenomenon of superimposing a low energy high voltage pulse. Generally a typical pulse has a peak voltage of 2500 V and it has durability for only 1 microsecond only. This high voltage pulse makes the xenon gas ionized sufficiently. Then it initiates and maintains the xenon arc. The initial arc has sky blue color. Amalgam used in the reservoir formed inside the arc tube. It is in the back of one of the electrodes. It is normally vaporized during lamp operation. As the xenon arc has started temperature of arc tube is increased which first vaporizes mercury and the lamp start glowing with bluish white color.

This color represents the effect of the xenon and mercury mixture at excitation. Gradually the temperature again rises, and sodium becomes vaporized lastly and becomes excited, a low pressure monochromatic yellow sodium spectrum results. During the period of sodium spectral line becomes at 589 nm. With temperature the sodium pressure increases from 0.02 atm in the monochromatic discharge to over 1 atm in the final steady state, broad spectrum condition. Also presence of excited mercury and xenon gives bluish effect to the lamp radiation and finally pleasant golden bright light comes out.

These lamps have high luminous efficacy and life span is about 24000 hours. It has excellent lumen maintenance capability. Data of several common high pressure sodium lamps are given below.

data of several common high pressure sodium lamps

Share this:

ABOUTME

Hi all. This is deepak from Bthemez. We're providing content for Bold site and we’ve been in internet, social media and affiliate for too long time and its my profession. We are web designer & developer living India! What can I say, we are the best..

Post a Comment
My photo

Hi, I`m Sostenes, Electrical Technician and PLC`S Programmer.
Everyday I`m exploring the world of Electrical to find better solution for Automation. I believe everyday can become a Electrician with the right learning materials.
My goal with BLOG is to help you learn Electrical.

Labels

EDITORIALS ARTICLES LEKULE TV DC ROBOTICS DIGITAL SEMICONDUCTORS GENERATOR AC EXPERIMENTS MANUFACTURING-ENGINEERING REFERENCE FUNDAMENTAL OF ELECTRICITY ELECTRONICS ELECTRICAL ENGINEER MEASUREMENT TRANSDUCER & SENSOR VIDEO ARDUINO RENEWABLE ENERGY AUTOMOBILE TEARDOWN SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR DIGITAL ELECTRONICS ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION CABLES AUTOMOTIVE MICROCONTROLLER SOLAR PROTECTION DIODE AND CIRCUITS BASIC ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS MOTOR SWITCHES CIRCUIT BREAKERS CIRCUITS THEORY PANEL BUILDING ELECTRONICS DEVICES MIRACLES SWITCHGEAR ANALOG MOBILE DEVICES CAMERA TECHNOLOGY WEARABLES COMMUNICATION GENERATION BATTERIES FREE CIRCUITS INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION SPECIAL MACHINES ELECTRICAL SAFETY ENERGY EFFIDIENCY-BUILDING DRONE CONTROL SYSTEM NUCLEAR ENERGY SMATRPHONE FILTER`S POWER BIOGAS BELT CONVEYOR MATERIAL HANDLING RELAY ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS ENERGY SOURCE PLC`S TRANSFORMER AC CIRCUITS CIRCUIT SCHEMATIC SYMBOLS DDISCRETE SEMICONDUCTOR CIRCUITS WIND POWER C.B DEVICES DC CIRCUITS DIODES AND RECTIFIERS FUSE SPECIAL TRANSFORMER THERMAL POWER PLANT CELL CHEMISTRY EARTHING SYSTEM ELECTRIC LAMP FUNDAMENTAL OF ELECTRICITY 2 BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR HOME AUTOMATION 555 TIMER CIRCUITS AUTOCAD BLUETOOTH C PROGRAMMING HYDRO POWER LOGIC GATES OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER`S SOLID-STATE DEVICE THEORRY COMPUTER DEFECE & MILITARY FLUORESCENT LAMP INDUSTRIAL ROBOTICS ANDROID ELECTRICAL DRIVES GROUNDING SYSTEM CALCULUS REFERENCE DC METERING CIRCUITS DC NETWORK ANALYSIS ELECTRICAL SAFETY TIPS ELECTRICIAN SCHOOL ELECTRON TUBES FUNDAMENTAL OF ELECTRICITY 1 INDUCTION MACHINES INSULATIONS USB ALGEBRA REFERENCE HMI[Human Interface Machines] INDUCTION MOTOR KARNAUGH MAPPING USEUL EQUIATIONS AND CONVERSION FACTOR ANALOG INTEGRATED CIRCUITS BASIC CONCEPTS AND TEST EQUIPMENTS DIGITAL COMMUNICATION DIGITAL-ANALOG CONVERSION ELECTRICAL SOFTWARE GAS TURBINE ILLUMINATION OHM`S LAW POWER ELECTRONICS THYRISTOR BOOLEAN ALGEBRA DIGITAL INTEGRATED CIRCUITS FUNDAMENTAL OF ELECTRICITY 3 PHYSICS OF CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS SPECIAL MOTOR STEAM POWER PLANTS TESTING TRANSMISION LINE APPS & SOFTWARE C-BISCUIT CAPACITORS COMBINATION LOGIC FUNCTION COMPLEX NUMBERS CONTROL MOTION ELECTRICAL LAWS INVERTER LADDER DIAGRAM MULTIVIBRATORS RC AND L/R TIME CONSTANTS SCADA SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS USING THE SPICE CIRCUIT SIMULATION PROGRAM AMPLIFIERS AND ACTIVE DEVICES BASIC CONCEPTS OF ELECTRICITY CONDUCTOR AND INSULATORS TABLES CONDUITS FITTING AND SUPPORTS ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTATION SIGNALS ELECTRICAL TOOLS INDUCTORS LiDAR MAGNETISM AND ELECTROMAGNETISM PLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS RECLOSER SAFE LIVING WITH GAS AND LPG SAFETY CLOTHING STEPPER MOTOR SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR AC METRING CIRCUITS BECOME AN ELECTRICIAN BINARY ARITHMETIC BUSHING DIGITAL STORAGE MEMROY ELECTRICIAN JOBS HEAT ENGINES HOME THEATER INPECTIONS LIGHT SABER MOSFET NUMERATION SYSTEM POWER FACTORS REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE INDUCTIVE RECTIFIER AND CONVERTERS RESONANCE SCIENTIFIC NOTATION AND METRIC PREFIXES SULFURIC ACID TROUBLESHOOTING TROUBLESHOOTING-THEORY & PRACTICE 12C BUS APPLE BATTERIES AND POWER SYSTEMS DC MOTOR DRIVES ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS ENERGY EFFICIENCY-LIGHT INDUSTRIAL SAFETY EQUIPMENTS MEGGER MXED-FREQUENCY AC SIGNALS PRINCIPLE OF DIGITAL COMPUTING QUESTIONS REACTANCE AND IMPEDANCE-CAPATIVE SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS SERRIES-PARALLEL COMBINATION CIRCUITS SHIFT REGISTERS WIRELESS BUILDING SERVICES COMPRESSOR CRANES DIVIDER CIRCUIT AND KIRCHHOFF`S LAW ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENTS 1 ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENTS B ELECTRICAL TOOL KIT ELECTRICIAN JOB DESCRIPTION INDUSTRIAL DRIVES LAPTOP SCIENCE THERMOCOUPLE TRIGONOMENTRY REFERENCE UART oscilloscope BIOMASS CONTACTOR ELECTRIC ILLUMINATION ELECTRICAL SAFETY TRAINING ELECTROMECHANICAL FEATURED FILTER DESIGN HARDWARE JUNCTION FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS NASA NUCLEAR POWER VALVE COLOR CODES ELECTRIC TRACTION FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS FLUKE GEARMOTORS INTRODUCTION LASSER PID PUMP SEAL ELECTRICIAN CAREER ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION MUSIC NEUTRAL PERIODIC TABLES OF THE ELEMENTS POLYPHASE AC CIRCUITS PROJECTS REATORS SATELLITE STAR DELTA VIBRATION WATERPROOF