8051 Microcontroller History and Basics

A Microcontroller has all the necessary components which a microprocessor possesses and invariably it poses ROM, RAM, Serial Port, timers, interrupts Input Output ports, and clock circuit. The microcontroller always focus on the chip facility and it is more prominent in the case of serial ports, analog-to-digital converters, timers, counters, read only memory, parallel input, interrupt control, random access memory and output ports. The concept of the 8051 microcontroller arises from here and here we will discuss in depth about the various aspects, uses, programming and other features of the 8051 microcontroller.
8051 Microcontroller and Basics
8051 Microcontroller and Basics

What is Microcontroller 8051?

A lot has been said about the 8051 microcontroller and after coming towards the end of the article you might be aware about the various aspects of the 8051 microcontroller. This microcontroller was invented by the Intel and it works with a 8 bit family processor. When it comes to the use the 8051 microcontroller has extensive application in various industries and in domestic purpose also.
8051Microcontroller
8051Microcontroller

History of the 8051 Microcontroller

If we will go back to history the 8051 microcontroller was first invented in the year 1980 by the microprocessor giant Intel and gradually it has been accepted worldwide and with the every coming days the importance of the 8051 microcontroller is escalating. When it was invented by the Intel, it was developed by means of NMOS technology, but as NMOS technology but it was not very effective.
History of the 8051 Microcontroller
History of the 8051 Microcontroller

In order to increase the effectiveness and the productivity the Intel has remodeled it by implementing the technology of CMOS technology and a new edition came into existence with a letter ‘C’ in the title name so that it can meet the demand and can perform up to the mark. The new edition of the 8051 micro controller has two buses and out of which one for the program and other for data so that it can perform well.

To be specific the 8051 microcontroller is an 8-bit family of microcontroller and used across worldwide. “System on a chip” is the other synonym the 8051 microcontroller has got and ingredients like 128 bytes of RAM, four ports on a single chip, 2 Timers, 1 Serial port and 4Kbytes of ROM signify the synonym.

As it is an 8 bit processor the CPU can work very efficiently and rapidly if the data is about 8 bits at a time and if the data is more that that it has to be fragmented to various CPU. In fact, in today’s date, most of the manufacturers prefer to come with 4Kbytes of ROM.

Focusing Area of the 8051 Microcontroller

Here we will discuss about the various important focusing area of the 8051 microcontroller.

Energy Management: The 8051 microcontroller is equipped with the efficient metering systems and it helps the microcontroller to save the energy to a large extent.

Touch Screen: the modern days and the upcoming microcontroller are coming with the touch screen feature and the 8051 microcontroller also comes with the touch screen feature. Hence it has an extensive application in cell phones, media players and gaming sector.

Automobile Sector: The 8051 microcontroller has an extensive application in the automobile sectors also and specifically in hybrid vehicle management it has been phenomenal. In addition to that cruise control and anti-brake system is the other area where it has goy huge use.
Focusing Area of the 8051 Microcontroller
Focusing Area of the 8051 Microcontroller

Microcontroller Basics

When it comes to the basic of the microcontroller, we must be aware about the various components of microcontroller and the components are : central processing unit(CPU), random access memory (RAM), read only memory(ROM), input/output ports timers, counters interrupt controls, analog to digital converters, digital analog converters, serial interfacing ports and oscillatory circuits.
Microcontroller Basics
Microcontroller Basics

CPU: it is called as the brain and the main function is to fetch and decode instructions so that the other functions can be carried out smoothly.

Memory: When it comes to the memory of the microcontroller the microprocessor comes to picture and the various memories installed inside the microcontroller are RAM and ROM (EEPROM, EPROM, etc) or flash memories for storing program source codes.

Parallel Output and Input Ports: The main objective of these ports inside the microcontroller is to drive the various interfaces between the connected devices.

Serial ports: These are also an important part of the microcontroller.

Timer and counters: The number of timers and the counters inside a microcontroller vary and mainly they are used for the purpose of lock functions, modulations, pulse generations, frequency measuring and making oscillations so that the task can be performed with the stipulated time interval.

Analog to Digital Converter & Digital to Analog Converter: These are the convertor used inside the microcontroller in order to convert the signal from analog to digital and vice versa.
Interrupt control: The name itself is self explanatory and it helps to perform the program without any interruption.
Special Functioning Block: These are the extra and special addition to the microcontroller to perform certain special task.

8051 Microcontroller Projects

For all engineering and diploma students the 8051 microcontroller projects have a great importance. To be honest the project relating to the 8051 microcontroller is very interesting and mainly it will solve the problem of real world requirement.
8051 Microcontroller Projects
8051 Microcontroller Projects

If you are in search of a project for the 8051 microcontroller here we will help you to get the relevant clue for your projects. Here are the names of some interesting and most accepted 8051 microcontroller project:
  • Secured Wireless Data Communication (at89s52)
  • Random Number Generator Using 8051
  • RFID based Attendance System (at89s52 + rf)
  • Interfacing Hex Keypad to 8051,
  • Remote Controlled Digital Clock with DS1307 & AT89c2051,
  • Solar Tracking System (at89c2051),
  • Ultrasonic Range Finder using 8051,
  • RFID based Security System (at89s52 + rfid),
  • Breathalyzer Circuit Using 8051,
  • SMS through Telephone (at89s8252),
  • Line Follower Robot using 8051 Microcontroller,
  • RF  based Remote Control (at89c2051),
  • RF based Automatic Meter Reading and Many More

8051 Microcontroller Programming

8051 microcontroller programming is certainly very interesting and to make it even interesting here we will give you some tools which will help you to understand the 8051 microcontroller programming in a better way.
8051 Microcontroller Programming
8051 Microcontroller Programming

Have a Look at the Tools
  • Code editor -Syntax highlighting Notepad
  • RIDE software – simulation
  • A51-Assembler
  • Proteus – Fully embedded simulation software
  • Simulator-windows based Smart n Small Simulator
  • Keil uVision – 8051/ARM simulation
  • Baud -Timer value calculators for various baud rates
Now we will write the program as per the Keil Uvison4 simulation software and the program is
  • Install software on your system
  • Click Project -> New Uvision Project
  • Save your project
  • Select Target Device (8051 – AT89s51)
  • File -> New
  • New text-editor will be opened. Here you need to write your code
The tutorial mainly emphasizes on Special Function Registers (SFRs), Special Function Registers, Basic Registers, The Accumulator, “R” Registers, B Register, Data Pointer (DPTR), the Program Counter (PC), Stack Pointer (SP), Addressing Modes, Program Flow, Low-Level Information, Timers, Serial Port Operation, Interrupts, Events that trigger Interrupts, Types of Memory, Code Memory, Internal RAM, External RAM and many more. The internet has been flooded with various tutorials which you can make the most use of.


This is all about 8051 microcontroller tutorial . If you are a beginner or an experienced one, the 8051 microcontroller needs a depth study so that you can grasp the basic of the 8051 microcontroller. Yes, the 8051 is not just a simple number, it signifies something and the tutorial will help you understand about the 8051 microcontroller. Furthermore, any queries regarding this article, please give your valuable suggestions in the comment section below. Here is a question for you, what is the internal memory of the 8051 microcontroller?
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Hi, I`m Sostenes, Electrical Technician and PLC`S Programmer.
Everyday I`m exploring the world of Electrical to find better solution for Automation. I believe everyday can become a Electrician with the right learning materials.
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