 Device boxes,
 Pull and junction boxes,
 Sizing of Junction and pull boxes according to NEC Section 31428.
Today, I will explain Electrical Boxes Volume and Fill Calculations as follows.
You can review the following articles in the same course for more information:
 Types of Electrical Conduits
 Conduit Fittings and Supports
Electrical Boxes Volume and Fill Calculations
NEC Section
314.16 Number of Conductors in Outlet, Device, and Junction Boxes, and
Conduit Bodies
This section include three
parts as follows:
 Part (A), “Box Volume
Calculations,” defines the volume of a wiring enclosure or box. The
calculations must take into account the volume of the box as well as the
volume of any extensions such as domed covers or extension rings.
 Part (B), “Box Fill
Calculations,” describes the method for determining how much volume (fill)
may be occupied by conductors, clamps, support fittings, devices (switches or
receptacles) or equipment, and equipment grounding conductors.
 Part (C), “Conduit Bodies,”
covers enclosing No. 6 AWG or smaller conductors and requires that the
maximum number of conductors be computed.
This section
states that:
" Boxes and
conduit bodies shall be of sufficient size to provide free space for all
enclosed conductors. In no case shall the volume of the box, as calculated in
314.16(A), be less than the fill calculation as calculated in 314.16(B). The
minimum volume for conduit bodies shall be as calculated in 314.16(C)".
Notes to
section NEC 314.16:
 The
provisions of this section shall not apply to terminal housings supplied with
motors or generators.
 Boxes and
conduit bodies enclosing conductors 4 AWG or larger shall also comply with
the provisions of 314.28.

NEC 314.16
Part (A): Box Volume
Calculations
The volume of a box is the total volume in cubic inches of the
assembled sections and, where used, the space provided by plaster rings,
domed covers and extension rings that are marked with their volume in cubic
inches or are made from metal boxes that are included in Table 31416(a) in
the NEC.
Notes for NEC Table 31416(a):
 The volumes of standard boxes that are not marked with their
volume shall be as given in Table 314.16(A).
 Boxes 1650 cm3 (100 in.3) or less, other than those described in
Table 314.16(A), and nonmetallic boxes shall be durably and legibly marked by
the manufacturer with their volume. Boxes described in Table 314.16(A) that have
a volume larger than is designated in the table shall be permitted to have
their volume marked as required by this section.
 The total volume determines the number and size of conductors
and wiring devices that are permitted to be contained in the box. The cubic
inch area required for each wire, clamp, support fitting, device and
equipment ground is added together. The box must have a cubicinch capacity
that equals or exceeds the total of the contained items.
 Sometimes more conductors end up in boxes than were originally
intended. Where practicable, an extension ring that is the same shape as the
box can be installed that will add adequate space so the original box does
not have to be replaced.
 The NEC Table 31416(a) covers the maximum number of conductors
permitted within a standard metal box. A “standard” box is one that is
included in the Table. The minimum cubic inch capacity for each size is given
along with the maximum number of conductors of sizes #18 through #6 that are
permitted in the box.
 This number of conductors permitted in various boxes, as shown
in the Table, applies only where all conductors are the same size. A calculation must be made of the cubic
inch capacity that is required where conductors of different sizes are
installed as in section 314.16(b) Box Fill Calculations.

NEC 314.16
Part (B): Box Fill Calculations
 Section 31416(b) includes the
requirements and method for determining the minimum cubic inch area that are
required in boxes that have different size conductors or any equipment
installed in them.
 The method is to add up all the
allowances required for various items, and this becomes the minimum area box
that is required. At that point, a standard box with a cubic area that equals
or exceeds the volume required can be used.
The following two tables can be
used in calculating box fill:
Conductor, Device or Type of Fitting

Counted as Conductors

Based on

Each conductor, originating outside and
terminating inside the box

1

Conductor size

Each conductor passing through unbroken

1

Conductor size

Conductor that does not leave the box

0

Not Applicable

Maximum of four fixture wires smaller
than #14 plus ground from fixture canopy. Must terminate in box.

0

Not Applicable

Cable clamps, one or more (internal)

1

Largest size conductor present

Support fittings, e.g. fixture studs or
hickeys (per type)

1

Largest size conductor present

Device or equipment yoke, e.g. switch,
receptacle, pilot light, etc.

2

Largest size connected to device

Equipment grounding conductors, all
except isolated ground

1

Largest EGC present

Additional equipment grounding conductors
for isolated grounding

1

Largest EGC present

Each
loop or coil of unbroken conductor not less than twice the minimum length
required for free conductors in 300.14

2

Conductor size

Commentary
Table 314.1 Summary of
Items Contributing to Box Fill
Let’s take a closer look at
some of the requirements that are listed on the above table as follows:
 No allowance is required for small fittings like locknuts and
bushings.
 Where one or more fixture studs
or hickeys are present in the box, a single volume allowance is required to
be made for each type of fitting in the box. A fixture stud is a fitting that
mounts to the top of the box, usually inserts through the knockout of a metal
box and is threaded to accommodate the fixture stem. A hickey is a fitting
that can be described as a coupling that has threads the same size as the
fixture stem and has an ovalshaped hole on one or more sides for the fixture
wires to exit inside the box. The hickey is no longer popular and has been
replaced with hanger straps that are fastened to the box.
 For each yoke or strap
containing one or more devices or equipment, a double volume allowance is
required for each yoke or strap. Each device or equipment is considered
individually where more than one item is contained in the box. For example,
if a switch has #14 wire connected to it, a volume allowance of 2 x 2.0 cubic
inches or 4 cubic inches is required. If a receptacle has #12 wire connected
to it, a volume allowance of 2 x 2.25 or 4.5 cubic inches must be made.
 Where one or more equipment
grounding conductors enters a box, a single volume allowance is required to
be made. The allowance is based on the largest equipment grounding conductor.
This applies to all equipment grounds except for an isolated equipment ground
often installed on computer circuits.

Example#1:
A
standardsized box is used where all the conductors are the same size
and, as shown in below figure, the box does not contain any cable
clamps, support fittings, devices, or equipment grounding conductors. Determine whether the box in below figure is adequately sized or not.
Solution:
To
determine the number of conductors permitted in the box, which is a
standard 4 in. x 1.5 in. square box (21.0 in.3), count the conductors
in the box and compare the total to the maximum number of conductors
permitted by Table 314.16(A).
Each unspliced conductor running
through the box is counted as one conductor, and each other conductor is
counted as one conductor.
Therefore, the total conductor count
for this box is nine conductors. Table 314.16(A) indicates that the
maximum fill for this box is nine 12 AWG conductors, so the box is
adequately sized.
Example#2:
Determine whether the box in below figure is adequately sized or not.
Solution:
The
standard method for determining adequate box size first calculates the
total box volume and then subtracts the total box fill to ensure
compliance.
For a standard 3 in. x 2 in. x3.5 in. device box,
Table 314.16(A) shows the minimum permitted box volume to be 18 in.3 and
allows up to a maximum of nine 14 AWG conductors.
Total Box Fill

Items Contained Within Box

Volume Allowance

Unit Volume Based on Table 314.16(B) (in.3)

Total Box Fill (in.3)

4 conductors

4 volume allowances for 14 AWG conductors

2

8

1 clamp

1 volume allowance (based on 14 AWG conductors)

2

2

1 device

2 volume allowances (based on 14 AWG conductors)

2

4

Equipment grounding conductors (all)

1 volume allowance (based on 14 AWG conductors)

2

2

Total

16

The box fill
for this situation as given in Commentary Table 314.2 is 16 in.3.
Because the total box fill of 16 in.3 is less than the 18 in.3 total box
volume permitted, the box is adequately sized.
Example#3:
Determine the adequacy of the device box illustrated in below figure, where two standard sized 3 in. x 2 in. x 3.5 in. device boxes have been ganged to form a single box.
Solution:
Table
314.16(A) shows that the permitted box volume for a single box is 18
in3. Thus, the total box volume for the ganged box is 36 in.3 (2 x 18
in.3).
The total box fill, based on Table 314.16(B), is
determined as given in Commentary Table 314.3. With only 26 in.3 of the
36 in.3 filled, the box is adequately sized.
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