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Afya ya Uti wa Mgongo ni Afya ya Mgongo - Dk. Yash Gulati, Apollo Hospital

Dr Yash Gulati, 
Senior Spine and Joint Replacement Surgeon 
at Apollo Hospitals; Delhi
Na Mwandishi Wetu,

Maendeleo katika njia za ufanyaji kazi pamoja na matumizi ya teknolojia yanavyokuwa kwa kasi yanaweza kutufanya tuamini tumepunguza maumivu katika viungo vyetu vya mwili ila si hivyo. Tunatumia magari, mitandao mbalimbali ambayo vizazi vilivyopita havijawahi kuota kutumia. Mabadiliko haya mapya katika maisha yetu yenye msisitizo mdogo katika uimarishaji wa viungo umechukua hatamu na kuathiri maisha yetu kwa maana mwili wa binadamu ni ule ule toka miaka milioni iliyopita. Na hiyo inasababisha kuongeza matukio mengi ya maumivu ya mgongo kwa sababu uti wa mgongo umekwisha athirika.

Watu wengi lazima wakutwe na maumivu ya uti wa mgongo walau mara moja katika vipindi vya maisha yao. Sehemu kubwa inayoathirika katika uti wa mgongo ni sehemu ya chini kabisa na sehemu ya shingoni kwa sababu sehemu hizo ndizo zina beba uzito mkubwa wa mwili kila siku. Sababu nyingine zinazosababisha maumivu ya mgongo ni kuharibika kwa diski, mgandamizo katika vertebra na kudhoofika kwa mifupa kutokana na upungufu wa tishu (osteoporosis) kutokana na umri inaweza kusababisha mgandamizo wa vertebra na kusababisha ufa.

Zipo zaidi ya sababu 100 zinazoweza kusababisha maumivu ya mgongo upande wa chini; matukio ambayo yanaweza kusababisha maumivu mgongoni na yasitambulike. Sababu maalumu ya kuleta maumivu ya mgongo inabaki kuwa ni kuharibika au kuvunjika kwa sehemu zinazounga uti wa mgongo kutokana na pozi baya la ukaaji.

Watafiti wameonyesha kuwa ukaaji mbovu katika viti au sehemu yoyote na kutofanya kazi inayoshughulisha misuli ya mgongo kunachangia maumivu ya mgongo na hata udhaifu katika uti wa mgongo. Maumivu katika mgongo na shingoni ni moja ya sababu za msingi za wafanyakazi kuchukua likizo maofisini. Asilimia 50 ya wafanyakazi wanajikuta wakipata maumivu ya mgongo na shingo mara moja kwa mwaka.

Kwa mujibu wa Dk. Yash Gulati, Mpasuaji Mwandamizi wa uti wa mgongo na viungo kutoka hospitali za Apollo; Delhi, habari njema ni kwamba asilimia 75 ya matatizo yote yanayohusisha maumivu ya mgongo yanaepukika, na asilimia iliyobaki yana epukika, mengine yanatibika na mgonjwa kurudi katika hali yake ya awali ndani ya muda mfupi.

Baadhi ya sababu za kwa nini kumekuwa na ongezeko la matukio ya maumivu ya uti wa mgongo ni kutokana na mabadiliko ya maisha kwa watu wanaoishi mijini. Wengi huwa wanaanza siku zao kwa kupoteza muda mwingi kwenye magari.

Kuendesha gari kwa muda mrefu kunapelekea maumivu katika sehemu ya chini ya mgongo. Kuepuka hilo, siti ya dereva inatakiwa iwekwe vizuri. Kama kuna uwazi kati ya siti na mgongo wa dereva, uwazi huo uondolewe aidha kwa kuweka mto au kusogeza kiegemeo cha kiti mbele. Magoti yanatakiwa yawe juu kidogo. Hiyo inaweza kuwa hivyo iwapo utajaribu kusogeza kiti mbele au nyuma. Kama upo uhitaji wa kuendesha gari muda mrefu kama sehemu ya kazi, ni vyema kuendesha kupata mapumziko mafupi ya kushuka na kujinyoosha na kisha kuendelea na safari. Wakati wa kushuka ni vyema mguu uanze kufika chini na sio kuruka.

Sababu kubwa ya pili iliyogundulika katika kuleta maumivu mgongoni ni hizi kazi za kukaa kwenye kiti muda mrefu (white-collar job) ambazo wafanyakazi wanapoteza muda mwingi mbele ya kompyuta, hawakai katika viti vile ipasavyo au wakati ofisi ina samani zinazoathiri ukaaji wa wafanyakazi. Ni vyema kila mfanyakazi ahakikishe kiti chake kipo katika kimo kinachoendana na meza yake ili kutoumiza mgongo. Kompyuta ziwe katika umbali unaofaa ili kuepuka mtu kukunja mgongo ili aweze kusoma au kuandika chochote katika kompyuta.

Uzito uliozidi kutokana na kutofanya mazoezi kunaweza kupelekea maumivu ya mgongo pia. Kwa mujibu wa Dk. Yash Gulati, uzito uliozidi unapoleta kitambi mara nyingi hupelekea kujikunja kwa mgongo na kuanza kuleta maumivu katika viungo na maungio katika mgongo. Ni muhimu sana kwa kila mtu kuhakikisha ana uzito sawia na urefu wake, ili kupunguza madhara ya kuathiri uti wa mgongo.

Sababu nyingine inayotokea mara kwa mara ya maumivu ya mgongo ni kusogea au kuharibika kwa diski alisema Dk. Yash Gulati wa Hospitali za Apollo;Delhi. Hii inatokea pale ganda la nje la diski lililo kama shokomzoba katikati ya mifupa miwili ya vertebral,linapochanika na kusababisha uvujaji wa ute mwepesi uliopo ndani.

Kulingana na sehemu diski ilipo, inaweza kubana neva za uti wa mgongo na kupelekea maumivu makali na kupooza kwa miguu na mikono. “asilimia tisini ya wenye tatizo la diski kuharibika wanapewa huduma kwa njia maalumu ya mazoezi ya viungo (physiotherapy) na mapumziko ya kutosha. Ni mmoja kati ya kumi watakao hitaji upasuaji mdogo (discectomy) wa kuitoa ile diski iliyosogea na kubana neva” alisema Dk. Gulati.

Apollo ni moja ya hospitali chache zilizofikia kiwango cha juu cha ubora wa matibabu na kufurahia matunda ya katika eneo adimu la upasuaji katika uti wa mgongo. Upasuaji wa kuondoa diski unafanyika kwa kuchukua tahadhari kubwa ya kupunguza madhara ambayo mgonjwa anapona mapema bila uvimbe mkubwa na pia kuweza kuendelea na kazi zake za kawaida.

Imetolewa na:


Dk. Yash Gulati, Mpasuaji Mwandamizi wa uti wa mgongo na viungo kutoka hospitali za Apollo; Delhi. 

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